Particle Characterisation of Traditional Homeopathically Manufactured Medicine Cuprum metallicum and Controls


  • Michel Van Wassenhoven GIRI



Nanoparticles, Particles, Cuprum metallicum, Copper, Lactose, Kalium muriaticum, Potassium chloride, Homeopathy, Potentization, Dynamization, Pharmacology, Nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA)


Background: Homeopathy is highly controversial. The main reason for this is its use of very highly dilute medicines (high homeopathic potencies, HHP), diluted beyond the Avogadro/Loschmidt limit. Research using several different methods has demonstrated the presence of particles, including nanoparticles of source material, in HHPs. This study aims to verify the results of a previous publication that detected the presence of particles in all dilutions.

Methods: We used the Nano Tracking Analyzer (NTA) to examine dilutions of a commonly used homeopathic medicine, an insoluble metal, Cuprum metallicum, for the presence of particles. The homeopathic medicines tested were specially prepared according to the European pharmacopoeia standards. We compared the homeopathic dilutions/dynamizations with simple dilutions and controls including a soluble medicine.

Results: We observed the presence of solid material in all preparations including HHPs (except for pure water). The measurements showed significant differences in particle sizes distribution between homeopathic manufacturing lines and controls.

Conclusion: Homeopathic medicines do contain material with a specific size distribution even in HHPs diluted beyond the Avogadro/Loschmidt limit. This specificity can be attributed to the manufacturing and potentization process. This material demonstrates that the step-by-step process (dynamized or not) does not match the theoretical expectations in a dilution process. The starting material and dilution/dynamization method influences the nature and concentration of these NPs.




How to Cite

Wassenhoven, M. V. (2022). Particle Characterisation of Traditional Homeopathically Manufactured Medicine Cuprum metallicum and Controls. International Journal of High Dilution Research - ISSN 1982-6206, 20(4), 11–28.



Fundamental Research (Physics and Chemistry)