Viscum album L. homeopathic mother tinctures: Metabolome and antitumor activity
Background: Viscum album L. is a semi-parasitic plant with antitumor activity attributed to the aqueous extracts. However, European V. album ethanolic extracts (VAE) have also demonstrated in vitro activity in tumor models. Aims: Evaluate the metabolic profiles of fifty VAE harvested during summer and winter seasons and their antitumor activity through 2D and 3D models. Methodology: VAE were prepared by maceration from: V. album subsp. album growing on Malus domestica, Quercus sp. and Ulmus sp.; V. album subsp. austriacum from Pinus sylvestris; V. album subsp. abietis from Abies alba. Chemical analyses were performed through liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry and Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) was performed in the Metaboanalyst 4.0. The antitumor potential of the selected VAE was evaluated in 2D and 3D models (MDA-MB-231 cancer cells) by MTT, crystal violet and glycolytic pathway analysis. Results and discussion: The first 3 principal components in PLS-DA explained 60% and 40% of data variation in positive and negative modes respectively. Three groups were formed and showed chemical similarity among V. album subspecies. The compounds responsible for group separation were tentatively identified as: pinobankasin or naringenin hexoside; isorhamnetin-3-hexoside, meglutol and different amino acids. The summer VAE at 0.5% v/v induced higher cytotoxic damage than the winter preparations, and Abies alba and Quercus sp. VAE promoted 49% and 42% reduction of tumor viability in 3D model (72h incubation), respectively. MDA-MB-231 glycolytic pathway in 2D model showed a decrease in the glucose consumption and extracellular lactate production. Also, PFK (6- phosphofructo-1-kinase) and PK (Pyruvate kinase) activities were inhibited by Abies alba and Quercus sp. VAE at 48h of incubation. Conclusion: VAE extracts showed different metabolomes and the glycolytic pathway should be an important target involved in the inhibition of tumor growth by these extracts.
Copyright (c) 2022 Michelle Nonato de Oliveira Melo, Adriana Passos Oliveira, Rafael Garrett, Patrícia Zancan, Alan Clavelland Ochioni, Mirio Grazi, Hartmut Ramm, Tim Jaeger, Stephan Baumgartner, Carla Holandino
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
<a rel="license" href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/"><img alt="Creative Commons License" style="border-width:0" src="https://i.creativecommons.org/l/by-nc-sa/4.0/88x31.png" /></a><br />This work is licensed under a <a rel="license" href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License</a>.