Effects of Homeopathic Preparations on Raphidiopsis raciborskii (Cyanobacteria) Toxicity in Artemia salina Model


  • Suhan Nowrooz Mohammad
  • Leoni Villano Bonamin
  • João Sarkis Yunes




cyanobacteria, saxitoxins, homeopathy, bioremediation


Cyanobacteria are microorganisms found in different parts of the world. Some genera are cyanotoxins producers a sodium channel blocking neurotoxin (saxitoxins).            Some homeopathic preparations have been identified as a remedial action on toxicity models in Artemia salina. This step of the study aimed to observe whether homeopathic products influence the toxicity of Raphidiopsis raciborskii on A. salina. Thus, toxicity tests were carried out on cysts in 96-well plates, using different concentrations of the extract obtained from regular cultivation of R. raciborskii in HCl 0.05M. Then, a pilot study with 22 homeopathic preparations was tested blind in two experimental series against 3 controls check for possible attenuation of the toxicity on Artemia salina cysts hatching rate. The most significant results indicative of bioresilience improvement were seen after the treatment with Nitric acidum 6 cH, Plumbum metallicum 6 cH, isotherapic 200 cH, and Hydrochloric acid 1 cH, being the last one used as a vehicle of the extracts. Thus, these preparations were chosen to be used in the main toxicity experiment, performed blind, in sextuplicate, in two experimental series. All experiments were performed during the first quarter moon. Statistical analysis was performed by two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey, with α=0.05. Nitric acidum 6cH induced a significant reduction of hatching rate (p=0.03), and isotherapic 200cH caused a cyst behavior similar to the unchallenged group, being considered the maximum expression of bioresilience face to the exposition. Epigenetics tests are being carried out to reveal the specific mechanisms involved in these effects.




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