Raman spectroscopy reveals variation in free OH groups and hydrogen bond strength in ultrahigh dilutions


  • Atheni Konar
  • Tandra Sarkar
  • Indrani Chakraborty
  • Nirmal Chandra Sukul
  • Dipanwita majumdar
  • Achintya Singha
  • Anirban Sukul




Calcarea carbonica, Sepia, high dilution, hydrogen bond, free OH, Raman spectroscopy, homeopathy


Objective: To decipher the nature of water structure in two ultrahigh diluted (UHD) homeopathic drugs by Laser Raman Spectroscopy. Method: Two homeopathic drugs Calcarea carbonica (Calc.) and Sepia officinalis (Sep.) in 8cH, 202cH, and 1002cH and their diluent medium 90% ethanol in 8cH and 202cH were used in the present study. Laser Raman spectra of all the samples were obtained in the wave number region of 2400 – 4200 cm-1. The intensity ratio at vibration frequencies between 3200 and 3420 (R1) and that between 3620 and 3420 (R2) were calculated for each UHD of the samples. Results: The spectra show a marked difference in intensities in the stretching vibrations of CH and OH groups of all the samples. R1 values for three UHDs of Calc. and Sep. show negative and positive relationships, respectively. In the case of R2 values, the relationship in three UHDs is 8<202>1002 for Calc., and 8> 202 < 1002 for Sep. In the case of control (ethanol UHDs) both R1 and R2 show a negative relationship. Conclusion: R1 denotes a relative number of OH groups with strong and weak hydrogen bonds. R2 indicates the relative number of OH groups with broken and weak H-bonds. Therefore, the UHDs of the two drugs and the control are different from each other with respect to hydrogen bond strength of OH groups and the number of free OH groups or non-hydrogen bonded water molecules.




How to Cite

Konar, A., Sarkar, T., Chakraborty, I., Sukul, N. C., majumdar, D., Singha, A., & Sukul, A. (2021). Raman spectroscopy reveals variation in free OH groups and hydrogen bond strength in ultrahigh dilutions. International Journal of High Dilution Research - ISSN 1982-6206, 15(2), 2–9. https://doi.org/10.51910/ijhdr.v15i2.819



Basic Research (Biology)

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