Multicenter project Brazil-Italy: physicochemical analysis of Zincum metallicum and lactose in dynamized mixtures

Authors

  • Carla Holandino Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro -UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro
  • Adriana Passos Oliveira Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro -UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro
  • Fortune Homsani Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro -UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro
  • Thaís Fernandes Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro -UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro
  • Michelle Rodrigues de Lima Zanetti UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro
  • Juliana Patrão de Paiva Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro -UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro
  • Camila Monteiro Siqueira IFRJ
  • Venicio Feo da Veiga UFRJ
  • Sheila Garcia Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro -UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro
  • Leticia Colli Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro -UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro
  • Alessandra L Viçosa FIOCRUZ
  • Luciana Macedo Brito RURAL
  • Andre Linhares Rossi Brazilian Center for Research in Physics
  • Paulo Henrique Picciani Instituto de Macromoléculas da UFRJ
  • Silvana Marques Araujo Universidade Estadual de Maringá
  • Leoni Villano Bonamin Universidade de São Paulo
  • Paolo Bellavite Verona University

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.51910/ijhdr.v15i4.868

Keywords:

physicochemical, homeopathy, Zincum metallicum, lactose

Abstract

Background: The use of sensitive techniques can be useful to increase the understanding of homeopathic systems behavior. Aim: To analyze physicochemical properties of Zincum metallicum and lactose mixtures prepared according to Brazilian Homeopathic Pharmacopeia. Methodology: Zincum metallicum was prepared using lactose as vehicle, from 1 to 3 cH, and from 1 to 6dH. All samples including respective controls (dynamized lactose) were analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) with X-Ray Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDX), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). Results: AAS analysis showed the dynamization process decreases zinc concentration in a proportional manner to the increase of homeopathic potencies. Quantities of 4ppm and 132 ppm of zinc were detected in 6dH and 3cH, respectively. XRD analysis showed crystalline form of lactose was not modified by dynamization. Amorphous lactose spheres were observed by TEM in all samples, with mean size ranging from 800 to 200 nm. EDX obtained in the TEM confirmed zinc presence throughout the amorphous matter and the absence of individualized zinc crystalline particles. These results are in accordance with XRD which showed absence of zinc diffraction peaks, in all lactose samples containing zinc suggesting this metal could be modified from crystalline to amorphous state, and consequently adsorbed into lactose molecules. SEM structural analysis of lactose and zinc (1cH) samples using BSE detector showed no zinc metal grains confirming XRD and TEM results. DSC analyses presented statistical significance differences (p<0.05) when fusion enthalpy values of zinc samples were compared. Conclusions: This data shows the several ground cycles of zinc into lactose probably induced the amorphisation of the zinc crystalline particles, increasing the metal adsorption by lactose molecules.

Author Biographies

Carla Holandino, Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro -UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro

ASc; BC Homeopathy. Department of Medicines, Faculty of Pharmacy, UFRJ.

Adriana Passos Oliveira, Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro -UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro

Professor

Fortune Homsani, Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro -UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro

Pharmacist

Thaís Fernandes, Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro -UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro

Pharmacist

Michelle Rodrigues de Lima Zanetti, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro

Pharmacist

Juliana Patrão de Paiva, Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro -UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro

Pharmacist

Camila Monteiro Siqueira, IFRJ

Professor

Venicio Feo da Veiga, UFRJ

Biologist

Sheila Garcia, Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro -UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro

Associate Professor

Leticia Colli, Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro -UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro

Pharmacist

Alessandra L Viçosa, FIOCRUZ

Pharmacist

Luciana Macedo Brito, RURAL

Professor

Andre Linhares Rossi, Brazilian Center for Research in Physics

Professor

Paulo Henrique Picciani, Instituto de Macromoléculas da UFRJ

Professor

Silvana Marques Araujo, Universidade Estadual de Maringá

Associate Professor

Leoni Villano Bonamin, Universidade de São Paulo

Professor

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Published

2021-08-18

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