International Journal of High Dilution Research - ISSN 1982-6206 <div style="width: 100%; text-align: justify; font-size: 12px;">IJHDR is a full submission free / open-access electronic journal specialized in the multidisciplinary field of High Dilution (HD) research. Hosted by GIRI ( and supported by HRI (, it is double-blinded peer-reviewed, counting on an international editorial board, and published quarterly. The journal id indexed at LILACS/BIREME/PAHO/WHO and EBSCO and inserted at SCOPUS, Qualis-CAPES, Latindex, OJS/PKP, Google Scholar, DOAJ, NSDL/NSF, Open J-Gate, JournalSeek, Scimago, and BVS. The H index is 9 (2021).</div> <div style="width: 100%; text-align: justify; font-size: 12px;">IJHDR counts on the services of ABEC and Crossref. Eventual plagiarism is checked by the iThenticate service.</div> <div style="width: 100%; text-align: justify; font-size: 12px;">IJHDR adopts the ethical standards described by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) and the<br />International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE).</div> <div style="width: 100%; text-align: justify; font-size: 12px;">The average time between submission and publication is 6 - 8 months.</div> <div style="width: 100%; text-align: justify; font-size: 12px;"> <p>Since August 2021, IJHDR adopts the Creative-Commons license: <strong><span class="cc-license-title">Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International</span> <span class="cc-license-identifier">(CC BY-NC-SA 4.0).</span></strong></p> </div> Groupe International de Recherche sur l'Infinitesimal - GIRI en-US International Journal of High Dilution Research - ISSN 1982-6206 1982-6206 <p>&lt;a rel="license" href=""&gt;&lt;img alt="Creative Commons License" style="border-width:0" src="" /&gt;&lt;/a&gt;&lt;br /&gt;This work is licensed under a &lt;a rel="license" href=""&gt;Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License&lt;/a&gt;.</p> Revisiting prophylaxis of homeopathic interventions in COVID 19 <p>Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused by novel beta-coronavirus has emerged as a cause of coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) declared by Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). Korean oriental medicine, Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), and Indian systems of medicine known as AYUSH (Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Sowa-Rigpa and Homeopathy) had implemented various prophylactic measures and interim treatment guidelines in prevention and treatment for COVID -19 cases. However, even though different approaches were implemented to break the epidemic chain, we have not reached herd effect or herd immunity in the Indian population. Therefore, in this ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, a specific study on immune markers of IL-6 (Interleukin-6), D-Dimer, Ferritine, CRP (C-reactive protein) with SARS CoV-2 specific IgG &amp; IgM antibodies need to be investigated for generating hard-core evidence for homeoprophylaxis in terms of immunity response. Therefore, there seems to be a need to revisit the program of homeoprophylaxis in the COVID -19 pandemic.</p> Aditya Dilipkumar Patil Copyright (c) 2021 Aditya Dilipkumar Patil 2022-01-02 2022-01-02 20 4 02 05 10.51910/ijhdr.v20i4.1098 Particle Characterisation of Traditional Homeopathically Manufactured Medicine Cuprum metallicum and Controls <p>Background: Homeopathy is highly controversial. The main reason for this is its use of very highly dilute medicines (high homeopathic potencies, HHP), diluted beyond the Avogadro/Loschmidt limit. Research using several different methods has demonstrated the presence of particles, including nanoparticles of source material, in HHPs. This study aims to verify the results of a previous publication that detected the presence of particles in all dilutions.</p> <p>Methods: We used the Nano Tracking Analyzer (NTA) to examine dilutions of a commonly used homeopathic medicine, an insoluble metal, Cuprum metallicum, for the presence of particles. The homeopathic medicines tested were specially prepared according to the European pharmacopoeia standards. We compared the homeopathic dilutions/dynamizations with simple dilutions and controls including a soluble medicine.</p> <p>Results: We observed the presence of solid material in all preparations including HHPs (except for pure water). The measurements showed significant differences in particle sizes distribution between homeopathic manufacturing lines and controls.</p> <p>Conclusion: Homeopathic medicines do contain material with a specific size distribution even in HHPs diluted beyond the Avogadro/Loschmidt limit. This specificity can be attributed to the manufacturing and potentization process. This material demonstrates that the step-by-step process (dynamized or not) does not match the theoretical expectations in a dilution process. The starting material and dilution/dynamization method influences the nature and concentration of these NPs.</p> Michel Van Wassenhoven Copyright (c) 2021 Michel Van Wassenhoven 2022-01-02 2022-01-02 20 4 11 28 10.51910/ijhdr.v20i4.1113 High Dilutions of a Drug of Covid-19 Origin Show Difference in Ranks <p>High dilutions (HDs) of drugs, used in Homeopathy, are prepared in aqueous EtOH (ethanol) through serial dilution accompanying mechanical agitation or succussion, and are called potencies. The potencies from the rank 12 onwards are too dilute to contain any original drug molecules. Do the potency ranks show any difference from each other? Do serial dilution and succussion contribute to the difference in potency ranks? This study aims to address these two questions. The throat swab of a Covid-19 patient was preserved and diluted with aqueous EtOH 90% to prepare the mother tincture (MT) and five different potencies of Covid named Covidinum. These potencies and their solvent media were analysed by electronic and vibrational spectroscopy. Charge transfer (CT) and proton transfer interactions occur during preparation of the potencies. The FT-IR spectra of all the test samples after normalization show difference from each other with respect to O-H stretching and bending (v<sub>2</sub>) bands. Serial dilution and succussion contribute to the observed difference in ranks and CT interactions.</p> NIRMAL CHANDRA SUKUL RAJ KUMAR SINGH SUMIT GHOSH MAHASWETA NANDI ANANYA PAL MANJULA PAL Copyright (c) 2021 NIRMAL CHANDRA SUKUL, RAJ KUMAR SINGH, SUMIT GHOSH, MAHASWETA NANDI, ANANYA PAL, MANJULA PAL 2022-01-02 2022-01-02 20 4 29 42 10.51910/ijhdr.v20i4.1099 Homoeopathy a System of Holistic Healing as an Alternative Treatment for PCOS – a Review <p><strong>Background: </strong>Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a complex hormonal and metabolic disorder characterized by oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea, hyperandrogenism and infertility. Global prevalence of PCOS is estimated to be between 06% and 26%. Homoeopathy, being a system of holistic healing can be accepted as one of the alternative treatments for PCOS.</p> <p><strong>Aim &amp; Objective: </strong>The aim of the study is to review clinical data, where the intervention was aimed to treat PCOS through Homoeopathy. The objective of the study is to identify the therapeutic approach, assessment criteria, treatment outcomes through an alternative therapy i.e., Homoeopathy in cases of PCOS.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A systematic literature search was conducted in the month of June2021 following International/National search databases for all clinical studies published in the period from 2000 to 2021. This search was aimed to target the entire literature of randomized trials or controlled trials, observational studies case studies/reports on PCOS in homoeopathy.</p> <p><strong>Result:</strong>28 articles related to Homoeopathy on PCOS were identified. Out of these 28studies, 22 studies (01 RCT, 02 NRCT,06 observational studies,04 case series and 09 case reports) were included in this review. All studies were published in peer reviewed journals.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> To establish the evidence based efficacy of the homoeopathic treatment in cases of RCT more pragmatic studies need to be planned in the future based on proper diagnostic criteria.</p> Deepti Dewan Rashmi Sharma Sharma Priyanka Nim Nim Shweta Singh Singh Copyright (c) 2021 Dewan D, Sharma R, Nim P, Singh S 2022-01-02 2022-01-02 20 4 43 59 10.51910/ijhdr.v20i4.1126 Homeopathic Treatment of Rectal Prolapse in a Kitten <p>Rectal prolapse be either partial or incomplete in nature and is defined as double layer evagination of the rectum through the anal canal. The common associated causations which can be seen in kittens are severe endoparasitism, enteritis, and associated tenesmus (Fossum, 2002). Rectal prolapse is the one of the most encountered surgical conditions involving the rectum in all domestic animal species (Tyagi and Singh, 1993). Surgical intervention is the most common treatment methodology adopted but however, in cases where surgery is not indicated, required, not opted by the owner, becomes a challenge to treat. Therefore, finding alternative therapies for clinical management is the need of hour. The objective of this study is to report successful management of rectal prolapse in a 5-month-old kitten having 4 episodes of prolapse in five days. The homeopathic medicines used in this case were <em>Sepia</em> 200C and <em>Ruta g.</em> 200C. The patient revealed a favourable response by 2<sup>nd</sup> day of the treatment and complete healing was observed on 7<sup>th</sup> day. This therapeutic protocol used was conclusive and it re-established the normal intake of food and energy level. Hence, homeopathic treatment can be considered as an alternative therapy for clinical management of rectal prolapse in a Felines and Canines.</p> Saurav Arora Surjit Singh Makker Copyright (c) 2021 Dr Saurav Arora, Dr SS Makker 2022-01-02 2022-01-02 20 4 06 10 10.51910/ijhdr.v20i4.1109 Different Perspectives of Homeopathic Research Seal the Year 2021 <p>In this last 2021 issue, five articles are published concerning different aspects of homeopathic research, from a review of clinical studies on Polycystic&nbsp;Ovarian Syndrome and the therapeutic potential of homeopathy to treat these cases (Dewan et al., 2021) to a detailed systematic analysis of nanoparticles suspended in homeopathic preparations (Van Wassenhoven et al., 2021). In between, some interesting reports can also be found, as a case report about the successful treatment of a rectum prolapse in a kitten in a period of a few days with no need of surgery (Makker and Arora, 2021); an opinion article (update article) reported the necessity to develop clinical studies on homeoprofilaxy of Covid-19 in which the key aspects of immunocompetence could be evaluated, such as the serum levels of cytokines, mainly those related to the systemic inflammatory syndrome such as IL-6, and of neutralizing IgG and IgM (Patil, 2021); and an original article about the physicochemical properties of a Covid-19 nosode, in which different patterns were described using spectrophotometric methods, resulting in an electronic signature of each potency (Kumar Singh et al., 2021).</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Enjoy the reading and happy 2022 for us all!</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>IJHDR Editorial Team</p> Leoni Bonamin Copyright (c) 2021 Leoni Bonamin 2022-01-02 2022-01-02 20 4 01 01 10.51910/ijhdr.v20i4.1136